Despite decades of investment in compliance, firms continue to be fined for breaches, law enforcement agencies continue to have a marginal impact on criminality, and the scale of illicit funds in the global economy shows no signs of declining. As a result, the global standard setters for FinCrime, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), have highlighted the need for a more ‘effective’ response to the problem. It is not just what businesses and public agencies do that matters, FATF say, but how intelligently they do it. But what does FinCrime effectiveness amount to, in practice? As a final core theme, the conference will investigate what an effective response in both the public and private sector looks like, and what kind of metrics might be applied to evaluate it. The conference will also consider the development of new ways of fighting FinCrime, such as Unexplained Wealth Orders (UWOs), and the greater role that other sectors beyond financial services need to play in our overall approach.